This volume is the outcome of a modern phylogenetic analysis of the grass family based on multiple sources of data, in particular molecular systematic studies resulting from a concerted effort by researchers worldwide, including the author. In the classification given here grasses are subdivided into 12 subfamilies with 29 tribes and over 700 genera. The keys and descriptions for the taxa above the rank of genus are hierarchical, i.e. they concentrate upon characters which are deemed to be synapomorphic for the lineages and may be applicable only to their early-diverging taxa.
Beyond the treatment of phylogeny and formal taxonomy, the author presents a wide range of information on topics such as the structural characters of grasses, their related functional aspects and particularly corresponding findings from the field of developmental genetics with inclusion of genes and gene products instrumental in the shaping of morphological traits (in which this volume appears unique within this book series); further topics addressed include the contentious time of origin of the family, the emigration of the originally shade-loving grasses out of the forest to form vast grasslands accompanied by the switch of many members to C4 photosynthesis, the impact of herbivores on the silica cycle housed in the grass phytoliths, the reproductive biology of grasses, the domestication of major cereal crops and the affinities of grasses within the newly circumscribed order Poales.
This volume provides a comprehensive overview of existing knowledge on the Poaceae (Gramineae), with major implications in terms of key scientific challenges awaiting future research. It certainly will be of interest both for the grass specialist and also the generalist seeking state-of-the-art information on the diversity of grasses, the most ecologically and economically important of the families of flowering plants.
This concise guide shows novice houseplant owners exactly how to keep indoor plants alive and healthy. Gardening expert Ellen Zachos helps you choose the right plants in the first place and then shows you how to care for them, outlining what each kind needs in terms of location, sunlight, water, and fertilizer. She also explains when plants should be repotted (and how to do that successfully), how and when to prune them, how to keep them clean of dust and pets, and more. This Storey BasicsÂ® guide has all the information you need to keep any houseplant thriving and beautiful!
This is volume five, Reading Level 1, in a comprehensive program (Reading Levels 1 and 2) for beginning readers.Two nine-book sets teach reading to children from preschool to grades K and 1, emphasizing phonics while also presenting a lively and engaging collection of facts and stories to make kids' reading experiences enjoyable. Each title emphasizes one phonics family, the first five books in each set focusing on one vowel sound, and the remaining four books combining some vowel sounds or reviewing them all. Short vowel families are covered in Level 1 readers and long vowel families in Level 2 books. Fiction titles feature attractive illustrations and have story themes ranging from funny to serious. Each fiction title also suggests a brief activity that allows kids to interact with the book's subject matter. Nonfiction titles are photo illustrated, and include "Fun Facts" to enrich children's reading experiences. The nonfiction books contain the basic elements of a nonfiction book, including glossary and index. They also suggest web sites appropriate to kids' interests where more information about each book's subject is offered. Both fiction and nonfiction titles contain word lists that group each book's words into "decodable" words--those containing the book's main vowel sound, which the book is either teaching or reviewing. Word lists also include high-frequency words and challenging words included in the main text. All books present a letter to parents and teachers explaining the fundamental concepts underlying both the series and the specific title. Level 1 readers are designed for classroom or home schooling use in preschool and kindergarten, and Level 2 readers for kindergarten and grade 1. "The Caterpillar" is a story that covers the "short u" sound.
Proceedings of a NATO ASI held in Crete, Greece, September 5-17, 1992.