Historical Geography of Crop Plants is devoted to a variety of staple and food crops, as well as fodder, fiber, timber, rubber, and other crops. The origins and histories of many of these crops have been clarified only recently by new research. The book has been arranged alphabetically by family and higher taxa for easy reference. Within families, species and cultivars are listed chronologically and geographically. The taxonomy and geography of probable wild progenitors have been outlined, and archeological evidence (when available) and historical evidence on region and domestication are traced. The subsequent evolution and spread of many domesticated species are examined, and the reasons behind the diversity in crop histories are explored. Historical Geography of Crop Plants will be a useful reference for botanists, economic botanists, ethnobiologists, agronomists, geographers, and others interested in the subject.
Successful reproduction is the basis not only for the stability of the species in their natural habitat but also for productivity of our crop plants. Therefore, knowledge on reproductive ecology of wild and cultivated plants is important for effective management of our dwindling biodiversity and for the sustainability and improvement of the yield in crop species. Conservation and management of our plant diversity is going to be a major challenge in the coming decades, particularly in the tropical countries which are rich in biodiversity. Reproductive failure is the main driver for pushing a large number of tropical species to vulnerable category. Available data on reproductive ecology on tropical species is very limited and there is an urgent need to initiate research on these lines. A major limitation for the beginners to take up research is the absence of simple concise work manuals that provide step-wise procedures to study all aspects of reproductive ecology.
The Manual fills this void. Over 60 protocols described in the manual cover the whole spectrum of reproductive ecology - study sites and species, phenology, floral morphology and sexuality, pollen and pistil biology, pollination ecology, breeding system, seed biology, seed dispersal and seedling recruitment. Each chapter gives a concise conceptual account of the topic before describing the protocols. The Manual caters to researchers, teachers and students who are interested in any aspect of reproductive ecology of flowering plants -- botanists, ecologists, agri-horticulturists, foresters, entomologists, plant breeders and conservation biologists.
Resources end up in wastewater through inefficient consumption. As a result, wastewater contains reusable water, carbon (energy) and nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur) that could be recovered or reused. Meanwhile, current treatment objectives are to produce an acceptable quality of water for reuse or discharge at the lowest life cycle cost. Most of the current treatment processes manage carbon and nutrients as wastes to be removed, and do not attempt to capitalize on these resources inherent in wastewater. In the context of sustainability and climate change, the next generation of wastewater treatment processes should focus on resource recovery (water reuse, energy/carbon recovery and nutrient recovery) as much as they currently do on treatment. The future goal is for wastewater treatment of domestic wastewater to have a minimal carbon footprint, and to be 100% self–sustainable with regards to energy, carbon, and nutrients, while achieving a discharge or reuse quality that preserves the quality of the receiving waters.